The history of ancient India dates back 1700 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent. Indian history can be divided into the three ages namely the Bronze Age civilization, the Iron Age Vedic period were major kingdoms were born and the Golden Age of India which saw the rise of the Gupta empire. After the Gupta Empire, the rule of the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas and Pandyas prevailed during which Hinduism and Buddhism spread to the south-east Asia.
In the 6th century BC, great scholars and monks like Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born. The history of Buddhism in India was a special chapter, which has given the world a new religion. Buddhism was founded by Siddharth Gautama. Gautama was a prince who abandoned his kingdom in search of the meaning of life. Gautama Buddha diluted the culture of priesthood and caste hierarchy in the 5th century B.C. Gautam and Mahavir (the founder of Jainism) gave the world a practical means of seeking the truth.
The Harappan civilization was established in the northwest. It was primarily an agricultural economy, which extended into an urban mode of society. Long distance trade started at this time. This period of Indian history also saw extensive agricultural development around the Yamuna, Ganga and several other southern rivers which boosted population, trade and urbanization.
Early in the 8th century AD, with the conquest of Baluchistan and Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim, the religion Islam arrived in the country. It was the Islamic invasions from Central Asia which occurred between the 10th and 15th centuries AD and brought most of northern India under the rule at first of the Delhi Sultanate and later of the Mughals.
Remarkable development in the field of art and architecture was seen during the rule of the Mughals. At the same time, several independent kingdoms, such as the Vijayanagara Empire flourished in southern India.
With the beginning in the mid-18th century, India was annexed by the British East India Company. It led to the Indian Uprising of 1857 as the countrymen were dissatisfied with the rule of the British. India was then directly administered by the British Crown during which there was a rapid development of infrastructure and an economic decline in the country. In the early 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress. The country got its independence from Great Britain in 1947. The nation was there after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan. In 1971, Pakistan’s eastern wing became the nation of Bangladesh.
The diversity of Indian culture with its unique variety of social and economic development comes from this long and complex historical journey. Regional expansion and population density can be understood only after a thorough and deep study of Indian History
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